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What Is a PostgreSQL Full Outer Join?

PostgreSQL joins are a cornerstone of relational database management, allowing developers to weave together data from multiple tables. Among various join types—inner join, left join, right join, and full outer join—the full outer join holds a unique role. A full outer join in PostgreSQL returns all records when there is a match in either the left, right, or both tables being joined.

Deciphering the Syntax of PostgreSQL Full Outer Join

The basic syntax for a full outer join in the PostgreSQL database is as follows:

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table1
ON table1.column_name = table2.column_name;

Here, table1 and table2 are the tables you wish to join, and column_name is the common field between them.

Detailed Examples of Full Outer Join Usage in PostgreSQL

Let's delve into an example that illustrates how full outer joins work in PostgreSQL:

customer_id INT,
product_id INT,
order_date DATE);

CREATE TABLE customers (
customer_id INT PRIMARY KEY,
customer_name VARCHAR(255));

(1, 101, 1, '2021-01-01'),
(2, 102, 2, '2021-02-01'),
(3, 103, 3, '2021-03-01');

(101, 'John Doe'),
(102, 'Jane Smith'),
(104, 'Tom Johnson');

SELECT customers.customer_name, orders.order_date
FROM customers
ON customers.customer_id = orders.customer_id;

This query will return a list of all customers along with their order dates, including customers who have made no orders and orders that have no associated customers.

SELECT customers.customer_name, orders.order_date
FROM customers FULL OUTER JOIN orders
ON customers.customer_id = orders.customer_id;
customer_name | order_date 
John Doe         | 2021-01-01
Jane Smith       | 2021-02-01
                 | 2021-03-01
Tom Johnson      | 

(4 rows)

Real-World Use Cases of Full Outer Joins

Full outer joins can be extremely beneficial in specific programming scenarios:

  • E-commerce platforms: Combining customer information with purchase orders to track buying behavior, including customers who haven't made any purchases and orders with missing customer data.

  • Project management tools: Merging task assignments with employee details to manage project timelines, including employees without any assigned tasks and tasks that aren't assigned to any employee.

Visualizing Full Outer Joins

Imagine two circles in a Venn diagram, each representing a table. A full outer join includes all parts of both circles, returning all records from both tables and filling in NULLs for missing matches on either side.

A left (outer) join, a (right) outer join, and a full outer join.


Mastering full outer joins in PostgreSQL allows developers to manipulate and extract valuable insights from their data more effectively. While they may not be as commonly used as other join types, understanding and using full outer joins can significantly enhance your data analysis capabilities in certain scenarios.

Learn More About Join Strategies to Enhance Your Database Performance

Understanding how the PostgreSQL parser picks a join method can be valuable to define join strategies to enhance your database performance. To learn more about this topic and take your knowledge of joins to another level, check out this article on PostgreSQL Join Type Theory.

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